Hollow Ingot Casting


Hollow ingot casting is a well-established casting technology which is used by many well-known manufacturers the world over to produce lighter good quality ingots for a range of applications.
Some key advantages of hollow ingot castings include shortened forging times and subsequent yield increase and obvious savings in materials and finished product weight.

Steel casting into ingots allows for the production of oversized components weighing up to several hundred tons. The main precondition of the competitiveness of any steel plant is the production of consistently high quality finished product. Among all forged parts, the rings or the shells for pressure vessels are traditionally made by removing the center part of the conventional ingots.

A hollow ingot is a forged ingot of typically with a large cross section, with a through axial channel formed during casting. This form of ingot is achieved by setting the specially designed metal rod with a gas cooling system internally within the casting form before casting. This technology allows a directional solidification of metal ingots to be cast from outside, inside and from the axial channel. The pouring of the metal into a casting form is performed via a simple siphon method.

Hollow ingots are used to produce forgings with an axial channel such as rings and have a number of advantages over ingots with traditional geometry: metal ingots produced by this technology, are chemically more consistent due to accelerated directional solidification. In addition, the axial channel can significantly reduce metal consumption.

The use of hollow ingots as a semi-finished product for cylindrical forgings brings the following additional benefits. In summary: hollow ingots takes less time to raise to forging temperature, by virtue of their smaller effective cross section; they require fewer forging operations, because the upsetting and punching steps become redundant. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. It is stated that it is possible to achieve the following savings by the use of hollow ingot instead classic, conventional forging ingot for forging large shells:

  • Forging yield: up to 35 % reduction of weight
  • Manufacturing time: up to 3 times less forging sequences when considering large shells issued form heavy ingots requiring efficient blooming to consolidate properties
  • Environmental and energy costs: significant cut in CO2 gas emission (up to 50 %) due to the shortening of the forging program and the reduction in weight

Figure 1: The conventional cylindrical forging route compared to that of the hollow ingot

Casting of hollow ingots has been an established process for a long time and with various producers of heavy forgings. Some notable European manufactures include Sheffield Forgemasters International Ltd. and AREVA Creusot Forge. The great advantage of using hollow ingots as a semi-finished product for the production of forgings such as shells and rings is mainly the lower level of the segregations. Other advantages are a shortened forging time and production yield increase, no welded area compared to rolling-welded process, higher quality of the product etc.

Figure 2: Schematic view of Hollow ingot technology


1. P. Machovčák, A.Opler, Z.Carbol, M.Korbáš, M.Kováč, V.Krutiš: The development of hollow ingot casting technology at Vítkovice heavy machinery A.S., METAL 2013, 15-17.5.2013, Brno, Czech Republic,

2. OMZ Special steels successufully explores casting of hollow ingots, OMZ-Special Steels, Accessed August 2016

3. P. Machovčák, A.Opler, Z.Carbol, M.Tkadleckova, K.Michalek,K.Gryc, V.Krutiš, M.Kováč: The utilization of numerical modeling to optimize the production of heavy forging ingots in Vítkovice heavy Machinery a.s., 1st International Conference on Ingot Casting, Rolling and Forging, ICRF, 6 June, 2012, Brüssel-Saal

4. O.Jaouen: Numerical simulation of a shell forming, from hollow ingot to the final product with a powerful software tool, TRANSVALOR, ICRF 2014, Accessed August 2016

기술 자료 검색

검색할 어구를 입력하십시오:

검색 범위



Total Materia는 다양한 나라와 규격에 따른 수천개의 주조 재료에 대한 정보를 포함하고 있습니다.

재질의 화학적 조성, 기계적 특성, 물리적 특성, 고급 물성 데이터 등의 전체적인 특성 정보들을 어디서든 검토하실 수 있습니다.

고금 검색 내 규격 설명 기능을 이용하여, 규격 내 재질에 설명된 키워드를 통해 재질을 검색하실 수 있습니다.

검색 범위 좀 더 줄이기를 원하신다면 국가/규격과 같은 다른 조건을 지정할 수 있습니다.

검색 버튼을 클릭합니다.

선택된 정보에 부합하는 일련의 재질이 검색됩니다.

결과 리스트에서 재질을 선택하시면, 일련의 규격 사양 소그룹이 나타납니다.

여기에서 선택한 재질의 특정 특성 데이터를 검토하실 수도 있고, 강력한 상호 참조 표를 이용하여 유사 재질이나 등가 재질을 검토하는 것 또한 가능합니다.

예를 들어, 소그룹 내 화학적 조성 링크를 클릭하시면, 재질의 화학적 조성 데이터를 검토하실 수 있습니다.

Total Materia 데이터베이스를 사용해 보실 수 있는 기회가 있습니다. 저희는 Total Materia 무료 체험을 통해 150,000명 이상의 사용자가 이용하고 있는 커뮤니티로 귀하를 초대합니다.