Critical Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Testing: Part One

Crack tip opening displacement is widely used and quite specific in that it is the only standardized test that covers all fracture behaviors that occur between the extremes associated with the stress intensity factor K and J-integral tests.

Slag Metal Reactions in Welding

Slag metal reactions during welding remains a complex and largely unknown subject area with regards to creating practical and effective welding consumables.

The HPAL Process

High pressure acid leaching is becoming more and more important and the inevitable strain on natural resources continues.

The Copper Flash CC Smelting Process

Copper flash smelting is a relatively new process which has been in operation since the 70’s and is a pyrometallurgical process used in conjunction with copper sulphide concentrates.

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