SAF Submerged Arc Furnace

Submerged Arc Furnaces are a specific heating systems used to make a range of ferro-alloys via the use of electrical power.
Some selected advantages of the SAF are simple, safe maintenance and high process efficiency.

Arc furnaces are classified according to their methods of heating such as the direct and indirect furnaces and also the furnaces with a submerged arc. Direct arc furnaces produce electric arcs that burn between the electrodes and the body being heated. In indirect arc furnaces, the arcs burn between the electrodes at a certain distance from the materials being heated. The arcs are also categorized according to their supply, as either AC or DC furnaces.

The smelting process in the SAF (Submerged Arc Furnace) is highly energy intensive and hence a large portion of the total production cost is related to the energy consumption.

The SAF is a much better qualified unit to produce ferro-alloys with regards to temperature control and adjustment to different reduction potentials. Over time, an independent ferro-alloy industry established which meets today’s permanently increasing demands of the steel industry. The majority of ferro-alloys are produced by pyrometallurgical smelting taking place in submerged arc furnaces.

Submerged Arc Furnace (SAF) for ferro-alloys produces various kinds of ferro-alloy such as Fe-Mn, Si-Mn, Fe-Si and MG-Si melting raw materials down with electrical power.

To make ferro-alloys of high-purity, which are produced by Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF), Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) and Refining Furnace (RF) provides high efficiency of work with improved process. A sinter plant is required for transforming the excess mid-low class fine ore to high class and also minimizes the amount of electric energy and cokes used for increasing the pre-reduction rate.

Figure 1: Basic process diagram of ferro - alloy plant


Submerged Arc Furnace (SAF) produces various kinds of ferro-alloys such as Fe-Mn, Si-Mn, Fe-Si, Mg-Si and etc. with electrical power.


  • Electrode column controlled by hydraulic system
  • Tapping by automatic tapping/mud-gun machine
  • Reasonable material charging system
  • Water cooled shell cover
  • Various electrical composition/single phase or 3-phase TR)


  • Furnace engineering focusing on client and process
  • Guarantee of equipment quality
  • Simple and safe maintenance
  • High process efficiency at low energy level

Figure 2: Schematic view of Submerged Arc Furnace in operation

Figure 3: Submerged Arc Furnace


1. A.Amadi: Modeling and optimization of three-phase Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF), MSc thesis, University of South Africa, June 2012,
2. M.Kadkhodabeigi: Modeling of Tapping Processes in Submerged Arc Furnaces, Thesis for the degree of Philosophiae Doctor, Trondheim, May 2011
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, ISBN 978-82-471-2841-1 (printed ver.), ISBN 978-82-471-2843-5 (electronic ver.) ISSN 1503-8181, Doctoral theses at NTNU, 2011:149, IMT-Report 2011:138
3. J.Kunze, R.Degel: New trends in submerged arc furnace technology, Proceedings: Tenth International Ferroalloys Congress; 1 – 4 February 2004, INFACON X: ‘Transformation through Technology’ Cape Town, South Africa, ISBN: 0-9584663-5-1
4. Ferro alloy plant, SAC Environmental&Thermal Technology, Accessed April 2016
5. All-inclusive packages for top performance, SMS group GmbH, Accessed April 2016
6. Submerged Arc Furnaces, Accessed 27 April 2016
January, 2017